李国章执笔写作 Writing by Li Guozhang

  The Master of Hmong Crafts Personal Highlig

  感悟仰阿莎神话真谛 拾回天王星历法埃进



  Appreciate the true meaning of the Hmong myth of YangAsha and

  Restudy the Uranus calendar used by Hmong people which called Gheib jit in Hmong language

  ——记中国创世历法的自觉探索人李国章 吴兴权

  Recorded by the self-conscious explorer of China’s Genesis Calendar,

  Li Guozhang, Wu Xingquan


  I. Li Guozhangs resume and achievements




  Li Guozhang was born in a Hmong village called Bixun which is located in the Baode town, Leishan County in southeast of Guizhou in November 1956. His house is surrounded by mountains. There is a big maple tree behind the house, with a square shaped pond in front of the house, as well as, four eight-diagram shaped windows in the middle of the house.


  In July 1973, Li Guozhang graduated from junior high school and returned to his hometown to work in agriculture where he lived for five years entirely after graduation. In October 1978, he was admitted to the Supply and Marketing School of Guizhou Province and graduated in July 1981 and assigned to the Price Bureau in Leishan County in August of the same year. He also worked in the Procuratorate, the Political Committee, the General Affairs office, the courts, the Comprehensive Administration office successively since 1981. All the work experience seems to have nothing to do with the environment of his hometown, but also with his research for the Hmong Genesis calendars.




  In June 2006, Li Guozhang was appointed as the director of the Hmong Culture Research Center in Leishan County of the Chinese National Museum of Ethnology. He is the one who has studied the Hmong culture self-consciously and he was also an official worker that had worked in the Political Committee before. Especially, he is the untutored researcher for the Hmong astronomic calendar and combined the research methods of investigation and adjudication. After January 2007, he was transferred to a non-leadership position and specializing in the study of Hmong culture. In June 2016, he was appointed by the Leishan government as the member of the Experts Committee on Intangible Cultural Heritage of Leishan County and the representative inheritor of the intangible cultural heritage project called the Hmong astronomic calendar.


  The Hmong Crafts application (APP) in mobile phone terminal was registered in September 2016 and the Hmong Crafts network website in computer was established in January 2018. Besides, the copyright of computer software was obtained.


  On August 4, 2017, the Cultural Research and Creative Center of the Three Emperors and Five Sovereigns of Leishan County in Guizhou Province was registered.


  Li Guozhang started writing books in his spare time from the year 2004 and there are the following books and copyright results by the end of April in 2018.


  (i) The Published works:


  1. The monograph of anthropology by individual, called The Traditional Culture of the Hmong people lived in Leigongshan. There are 250,000 words in total and it was published by Guizhou Ethnic Publishing House in October 2006.


  2. The book, Hmong in Baode Town, is the cooperation results with the Hmong scholar Wen Ximei and Wen Yuanrong who are the local men in Leishan County, Li Guozhang is the first author. The book is about the investigation results of the history and Hmong cultural research in Baode town. There are 350,000 words in total and was published by Guizhou People’s Press in October 2006 and won the second prize in the fifth outstanding results of philosophy and social sciences that hosted by the Qiandongnan State in October 2008.


  3.The book, Local Culture Textbook In Leishan County, was published by Guizhou People’s Press in October 2008 and Li Guozhang is the executive editor.


  4. The book, Tunpu Culture in Leishan, is the co-authored work with others and Li Guozhang is the first author. It has 240,000 words in total and was published by Guizhou People’s Press in February 2017.


  (ⅱ)The Publishing works:Study of the Ancient Chinese Genesis Calendar, the Twelve Solar Calendar of the thousand Hmong families’ village Xijiang town, the Migration and the rice cultivation in ancient Hmong people. Besides, he is co-compile with the Hmong researcher Hou Tianjiang for the books, the Intangible Cultural Heritage in Leishan Count, the Festival Culture in Leishan County and so on.


  (iii) The Revised books:Hmong people’s perpetual calendar, it is a literal almanac that ranges from the year 1911to 2100 and almost 650,000 words in total. Also, it was recorded according to the Hmong 28 constellations and the 12 Chinese Zodiacs, which were commonly used in ancient China.




  Li Guozhangs hometown – Bixun Hmong village, Langde Town, Leishan County


  (ⅳ)The compiling books: Monograph on the Thousand Hmong families, Xijiang Town, It is a co-authored work and Li Guozhang is the first author.


  (ⅴ) A series of books on Chinese Hmong culture:The Hmong Folk Regulations and the Ten Months Solar Calendar in Leishan, The Hmong Women’s Clothing and Wearing in Leishan, The tactics for bullfighting in East of the Hmong Land, The Investigation and Research for the Historical Culture of Dapingshan and so on.


  Ⅱ. The consciously explorer for the ancient Genesis calendar


  There are standing trees, lush woods in the mountains top and crossed with stilted buildings and chimney smoke. While under the mountains, there are crooked streams, winding paths, blooming flowers and twittered birds. Bixu Hmong village in Langde Town, Leishan County is the picturesque village, which is embraced by the verdant trees and limpid streams. Also, it is the hometown for Li Guozhang who is a tall and strong Hmong man and brilliant Hmong scholar. For the longing to ancient history or the feelings of homesickness, Li Guozhang has a strong sentiment for Hmong culture and entirely devotes himself to the research.


  During the time Li Guozhang as the director of the Hmong Culture Research Center in Leishan County of the Chinese National Museum of Ethology, he conducted investigations in villages, visited neighboring counties and conducted interviews across state boundaries. He did a lot of work, not only collecting detailed information, but also enriching his own thoughts and views in the process of work. Solid theoretical foundation and material support form a true understanding of miao culture and history.





  Li Guozhang explained that there is a totem combined the images of the sun and moon in Danjiang Hmong girls Great Silver Horn. Besides, there is a big silver flower in the center of the lower ring. This kind of costume boasts that they are the descendants of the ancient emperor of the sun and the moon.

  For example, on the interpretation of the custom of Leishan Hmong s family wearing a flower on their head, Li Guozhang put forward his own views on the basis of long-term research on the astronomy and calendar of Hmong people. “The flowers is a kind of method expressing the Hmong people’s respect to the sun when Hmong female put it on their hair.” In ancient times, the Hmong people insist on the view that hair is the most important part of a body due to the traditional filial piety that hair is given by their parents and can’t be cut out at will. Thus, the criminals in ancient time can cut their hair for punishment to instead the corporal punishment. Under this background, we can see the importance of the hair to Hmong people and this is a precondition to Hmong females’ chignon and the flowers on their hair. Therefore, we can infer that it is non-convenient for long hair Hmong females when they are laboring in the fields. They wore their hairs into a chignon in order to protect it and put the hair rope, comb, hairpin, silver hair clasp to fix the hair patterns. Hmong females also care about the hairstyle, so they will use the decorations that combine the totem worship and aesthetic views to beautify the chignon. The flowers in front of the chignon symbolize the sun and the comb which put back of the chignon symbolizes the moon. This is the final style after Hmong females decorate their chignons, Li Guozhang said.


  In different ancient times, a flower that is put on the hair is not only the decoration, but also as a special calendar. Specifically speaking, the flower petal’s number stands for the month in a year. For ancient Hmong people, their calendar is according to their geography. They worship the nature and use the indigenous flower petals’ number as calendar for the purpose of longevity and reproduction. This is known academically as the Phenological Calendar or Nature Calendar. There are the researches by the former researchers that indicate that Hmong female who puts a flower in their hair is only for worshiping the nature, using as calendar and beautifying, while Li Guozhang insists that besides the three reasons above, it also worship to the totem of the sun after three years research. What’s more, it is the evidence for the cultural relics of the Hmong people’s Solar Calendar. The Hmong in Leishan believes that both people’s psychological behaviors and physical manners must obey the regulations of sun. Nowadays, although the flowers put on the Hmong female’s hair has nothing to do with the calendar, it is only used as a method of beautifying and expression of sub-consciousness. The combination of faith, calendar, labor and decoration formed the custom and appearance of Hmong women to decorate their buns.


  The interpretation of the flower for Hmong females is just the tip of the iceberg in the study of the research for Hmong culture by Li Guozhang. He also has researches for many topics, such as the reed-pipe wind instrument originated from the sun wood of the sky pole which is a kind of wood, the local dance called Shengguwu is a kind of sacrificing dance that follows the direction of the planets movement as right-to-left, Tai Chi is the plan of the earths rotation. The theory of one to two is to illustrate the regulations of the climates on earth, such as the theory of yin-yang, five elements and eight diagrams and the theory of one to three is the regulations of the reproduction for humans, such as the philosophy and so on. These researches above are very significant and more researches are too numerous to mention one by one on this study.




  Li Guozhang Investigates the Hmong Batik Patterns


  When the ancestors of the Hmong people observed the astronomical signs, made the calendar and taught the people, the tribal leaders worked hard for a long time. Through the study of a large number of Hmong genesis myths and Hmong witch culture, Li Guozhang has the conclusion that the Hmong people has a Genesis Calendar. The discovery is very significant to the historical culture of the Hmong people by Li Guozhang and his research, The Study of Ancient Chinese Genesis Calendar, has presented the theory systematically.




  The Hmong nationality has no systematic written history, but many national cultures have been recorded through non-written symbols. Such as the Hmong concept of ghosts and ghosts of the same name of the sick ghost, that is, when a person is alive in the world, his invention, creation and achievements become the pronoun of ghosts and gods after death.. When he had the disease in the world, and when someone else had the same disease after his death, it was believed that he had become a ghost and a god who came to worship him. Therefore, for the sake of healing and health, present to him what he loved in life. For example, if the buffalo was always suffering from headaches before the invention of the life, when it died and someone had a headache, it would be thought that he came to find food and drink, so he asked for a spare buffalo to sacrifice it.

  Hmong shamans use rice and grains of rice as physical evidence to convey messages with ghosts and gods. Each group of Thor knows rice and grains of rice, which indicates the important position of rice and grains of rice in Hmong history and culture, and also explains the long history of rice cultivation in China. According to the age of carbonized rice unearthed from yufu Cave cultural site in Daoxian County, Hunan Province, China has been cultivating rice for 12,000 ~ 15,000 years. It can be inferred that the ancestors of the Hmong nationality observed the sun and moon astrology movement rule, basically with the invention of rice planting time synchronization.

  Hmong worship thunder god, to convey to people the ancestors observe the sun and the moon astrology, the formulation of astronomical calendar of the historical process, to people the invention of human childhood progress ladder. The study of Ancient Chinese Creation Calendar written by Li Guozhang is a masterpiece of the study of creation astronomical calendar on the basis of interpreting creation myth and analyzing Hmong Nationalitys Wizard culture. The book has proved the existence, origin and development of the Hmong calendar. Among them, the "E-Jin" 84 decimal system of the Hmong calendar is the most distinctive. It is a unique decimal algorithm and represents the highest achievement of the Hmong astronomical calendar. All these have become the important theoretical basis for the Hmong calendar to apply for the intangible cultural heritage list, and are also the concrete results of the rescue and protection. Li Guozhangs research is of great value and significance both theoretically and practically.


  Ⅲ. Restudy the Uranus calendar, E-jin, also called Gheib jit in Hmong language


  According to Li Guozhangs Study of the Ancient Chinese Genesis Calendar,

  there are the following calculation units in the history of the Hmong calendar:




  A Eight diagrams consist of Tai Chi, Yinyang and the five elements, which is the copyright work created by Li Guozhang

  1. 年,指人类所居住的地球公转周期。其附属概念有太极、阴阳、历元等。

  1. The unit Year refers to the period of the Earth inhabited by humans. Its ancillary concepts include Tai Chi, Yin yang, calendar and so on.


  2. The unit Quarter refers to the period divided by the main climates during a year. It is shorter than a year and longer than the month, in the form of months.


  3. The unit Month refers to the Solar Month divided by the phenology and the Lunar Month based on the moon’s cycle. The Solar Month is May and October, June and December. July, August, September, fifteenth month, sixteenth month, seventeenth month, eighteenth month, nineteenth month, twentieth month are attribute to solar calendar. Lunar month also can be divided into Sidereal Month and Synodic Month.


  4. The unit Terms refers to the Solar Calendar Terms divided by the phenology and the Synodic Terms based on the solar year and the cycling of the lunar moon. The 24 Solar Terms, the 30 Solar Terms, the 64 Solar Terms are belongs to the Solar Calendar Terms. Dragon-boat Festival is the Lunar Calendar Terms. It is shorter than month and longer than day. It is a short period for the changing climate and in forms of several days.


  5. The unit Day has two forms, daytime and nighttime.


  6. The unit Instant, also called “Shichen” in Chinese, it is not the same meaning as the time in nowadays. The instant in ancient times refers to twelve two-hour periods of one day and the instant is a twelfth of a day.


  7. The unit “Ji” in Chinese, it refers to the one-twelfth of an instant, or“Shichen”.


  8. The unit “Jiu” in Chinese, it refers to the one-twelfth of a “Ji”.


  9. The unit “Xiang” in Chinese, it refers to the one-twelfth of a “Jiu”. As you can see, the unit Month, Day, Instant, “Ji”, “Jiu”, “Xiang” are the micro analysis of a year and the division can be continual like this.


  10. The unit “Dou” in Hmong language also called “E-dou”, some translator written as “Gadou”. It is kind of unit for the year, that is, twelve years on the basis of a year. There are twelve years in a unit, it is the Jupiter Calendar. The Hmong Calendar is according to the Maple Jupiter Calendar, which is kind of local calendar. The ancients thought that Jupiters orbit was twelve years, which is the calendar that the local festival named Gushe Festival according to.


  11. The unit “E-jin” in Hmong language also called “Ga-jin”. It refers to seven “E-dou” or eighty-four years in nowadays. It is the cycle of Uranus. Both “E-dou” and “E-jin” are the expansion of the year and the expansion can be continual like this.


  The aforementioned Hmong calendar “E-jin” which refers to eighty-four years in nowadays is the most typical one and unique in the world. It is the highest achievement in the Hmong astronomical calendar. Now, the question is what is E-jin?

  月亮历有朔望月和恒星月两种。朔望月平均朔望周期为29.53059日。月亮平均公转周期(恒星月)为 27.32166日。

  The Luna Calendar has two types of Synodic Month and Sidereal Month. The average synodic period of the Synodic Month is 29.53059 days and the average rotation period of the Lunar Month is 27.32166 days.


  The Synodic moon can be seen with the naked eyes and everyone can observe in this way. While the sidereal moon is the menstrual period of a woman who gives birth to, not everyone can observe the sky with naked eyes and to know the location. Therefore, the ancient astronomers divided the starry sky into 28 constellations which are the orbits of the moon, we can regard it as the dormitory of the moon when the moon revolving and each region called “yi xiu” or “yi she” in Chinese, which means the dormitory of the moon. This is the originating of the 28 constellations and it obeys the Sidereal Calendar.




  The Hmong people is using the “Jin xiu” to counting the days by Sidereal Calendar and it constitute the special words for calendar after many years. There are 28 special words by Sidereal Calendar in the Hmong Danjiang town, Leishan County. They are listed bellows:

  1.Jin hao (Ptarmigan, Jiaomujiao);2.Yongliu ( Water Dragon, Kangjinlong);3.Jinju (Bamboo Rat, Dituhao);4.Jinxiang (Civet, Fangritu);5.Meiha (Butterfly, Xinyuehu);6.Xiuliu (Tiger, Weihuohu);7.Xiuyou (Leopard, Jishuibao); 8.Crab, Doumuxie (Crab;Wooden crab); 9.Jinni (Buffalo, Niujinniu); 10.Wuyu (Wunv, Nvtufu);11.Jinnang (Rat, Xurishu);12.Baliu (Swallow, Weiyueyan); 13.Jinbei (Pig, Shihuozhu);14.Yongyou (Mountain Dragon, Bishuiyu) ; 15.Gonggen (Snail, Kuimulang); 16.Jinsa (Dog, Loujingou); 17.Jinyang (Pheasant, Weituzhi);18.Jingai (Chicken, Maoriji);19.Jinxie (Eagle, Biyueniao);20. Jinhuang (Monkey, Zuihuohou); 21.Jinxia (Otter, Canshuiyuan); 22.Gewa (Swan, Jinmuan); 23.Jinxian (Goat, Guijinyang); 24 .Gangshang (Hornet, Liutuzhang);25. Yanma (Broncho, Xingrima); 26.Gangye (Spider, Zhangyuelu); 27.Jinnuo (Snake,Yihuoshe); 28. Ganggong (Earthworm, Zhenshuiyin).

  There is a regulation for the special words that we should add an character called “Jin” for the singe name of a constellation for progressing. While ,the double name of the constellation we can call it directly. Obviously, the words above can’t be attributed to the type of E-jin, but it is the basis of E-jin. (PS: Jiaomujiao, Kangjinlong , Dituhao, Fangritu, Xinyuehu, Weihuohu, Weihuohu, Doumuxie, Niujinniu, Nvtufu, Xurishu, Weiyueyan, Shihuozhu, Bishuiyu, Kuimulang, Loujingou, Weituzhi, Maoriji, Biyueniao, Zuihuohou, Canshuiyuan, Jinmuan, Guijinyang, Liutuzhang, Xingrima, Zhangyuelu, Yihuoshe, Zhenshuiyin are the members of the 28 constellations in Chinese myth.)




  Parts of the structure of the Hmong calendar E-jin (copyright works)


  The Hmong E-jin is the masterpiece of the QianDong dialect, which is an branch of the Hmong languages, the others are Xiangxi and ChuanQianDian. The Hmong E-jin has 84 special words for the Hmong calendar and it consists of three rounds of 28 Constellations and seven rounds of 12 Chinese Zodiacs, they are in order as follows with two patterns of “an animal with single Chinese character+ another kind of animal which has double Chinese characters” and “ an animal with single Chinese character +the Chinese character “进(Jin)”+another animal which has a single Chinese character.”

  1.Huleiniao, 2.Maoshuilong, 3.Longzhushu, 4.Shelimao, 5.Canhudie, 6.Yangjinhu, 7.Houjinbao, 8.Jipangxie, 9.Goushuiniu, 10.zhuwuy, 11.Shujinshu, 12.Niujinyan, 13.Hujinzhu, 14.Maoshanlong, 15.Longluoshi, 16.Shejingou, 17.Canjinzhi, 18.Yangjinji, 19.Houjinying, 20.Jijihou, 21.Goushuita, 22.Zhutian e, 23.Shujinyang, 24.Niumafeng, 25.Huyema, 26.Maozhizhu, 27.Longjinshe, 28.Sheqiuyin, 29.Canjinlei, 30.Yangshuilong, 31.Houzhushu, 32.Jilimao, 33.Gouhudie, 34.Zhujinhu, 35.Shujinbao, 36.Niupangxie, 37.Hushuiniu, 38.Maowuyu, 39.Longjinshu,40.Shejinyan,41.Canjinzhu,42.Yangshanlong, 43.Houluoshi, 44.Jijingou, 45.Goujinzhi, 46. Zhujinji, 47.Shujinying, 48.Niuyuanhou, 49.Hushuita, 50.Maotian e, 51.Longjinyang, 52.Shemafeng, 53.Canyema, 54.Yangzhizhu, 55.Houxiushe, 56.Jiqiuying, 57.Goujinlei, 58.Zhushuilong, 59.Shuzhushu, 60.Niulimao, 61.Huhudie, 62.Maojinhu, 63.Longjinbao, 64.Shepangxie, 65.Canshuiniu, 66.Yangwuyu, 67.Houjinshu, 68.Jijinyan, 69.Goujinzhu, 70.Zhushanlong, 71.Shuluoshi, 72.Niujingou, 73.Hujinzhi, 74.Maojinji, 75.Longjinying, 76.Sheyuanhou, 77.Canshuita, 78.Yangtian e, 79.Houjinyang, 80.Jimafeng, 81.Gouyema, 82.Zhuzhizhu,83. Shujinshe, 84.Niuqiuying.


  There are still some questions listed. Why the Hmong E-jin is constituted by 12 Chinese Zodiacs and 28 Constellations? What’s the meaning of the special words for Hmong calendar? Why are the 84 special words for Hmong calendar to cycling and progressing? The author interviewed Li Guozhang with these questions above and he answered clearly as follows:


  (ⅰ) The calendar based on the 12 Chinese Zodiacs is the Jupiter Calendar with 12 years for a cycling. The birth of the butterfly mother from the maple core indicates that the Hmong ancestors have used the Jupiter calendar before. The Jupiter Calendar is the Maple Jupiter Calendar.


  (ⅱ) The constitution of special words for Hmong calendar usually with 12 Chinese Zodiacs as former parts and 28 Constellations as latter parts. It is the location of the Jupiter in the year.


  (iii) The cycling round of the Uranus is eighty-four years, while the ancestors insist that the cycling round of the Jupiter is twelve years, eighty-four is seven times to twelve, which is converged with the cycling round of Uranus and Jupiter. Nowadays, after times observation of the Jupiter, the cycling round of the Jupiter is 11.86years and 83.02 years for seven rounds, it has 0.98 years from Uranus and the gap is 7.2 degrees in the ecliptic plane. The ancestors almost regardless the gap, because of the astronomical devices is limited in ancient time. Therefore, the Hmong E-jin refers to the Uranus Calendar, which is recorded the sky according to Jupiter Calendar.


  In the interview, the author asked Li Guozhang a question as follows, “How do you know these data and calendars?”


  “I have read the book of heaven.” He said with a humorous tone.


  Q: Where did you get the book of heaven? Which kind book of heaven did you have read?


  A: The natural symbols distributed in the sky are called the Book of Heaven. There are endless books of heaven on the edge of the solar system. The stars in the sky are unevenly distributed, there is light and dark, it is a book of heaven from ancient times to the present. The Hmong 28 constellations are located near the equator and it is the book of heaven that read by the wise man of the Hmong ancestors. Besides, the Hmong 28 constellations are the masterpiece for the Chinese sages to explore the universe and the compulsory course for the one who is going to study the Genesis Calendar.


  Q: Why did you resign from the political committee and taking part in the research for the Hmong 28 constellation calendar?


  A: The Hmong 28 constellation calendar is the first course in the history of human civilization. The natural regulations should be ranked firstly, which is derived from the first course. It is mysterious to the Hmong people as for the Hmong 28 constellation calendar is based on the myth of creation and the culture of Hmong witch in its origination which is blank in academic research and cultural records before. There are very few scholars involved in the research for this topic because of the difficulties, especially in the understanding of language and cultural customs. Though the Hmong 28 constellation calendar involves the history of human civilization, especially the history of Chinese civilization for creation, Li Guozhang regards it as a responsibility to find it and record it and as an essential pastime of the brain.


  Q: How did you read the book of heaven? Are there any teachers?


  A: I read the book of heaven in every night when people are asleep and my soul will go to the sky from the big maple tree in hometown and invite the Hmong beauty YangAsha whom lived in the Moon Palace to stroll together to the fields of Jupiter and Uranus. There are no teachers to give lessons and read alone. YangAsha taught me to restudy the course when the Hmong E-jin was scattered in the mouth of the Gods.


  Q: Uranus is a planet discovered by the knight called Sir William Herschel whom using a telescope on March 13, 1781. The discovery was recognized by the World Astronomy Community. Did the World Astronomy Community agree with your opinion that the Hmong had discovered and developed the Uranus calendar long ago?


  A: Compared with the five planets Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, the brightness of Uranus is also visible to the naked eye on a clear sky. This is the evidence to show the possibility for discovering the Uranus by the Chinese sages and the astronomical fans who are interested in astronomic observation. The Hmong E-jin was recorded by the Chinese man Jiali, not Li Guozhang, no matter believe it or not, E-jin is the most significant and unique calendar created by Hmong which is actually exist in the world and no one can deny the fact.


  Ⅳ. Appreciating the truth of the myth of the Hmong beauty YangAsha


  YangAsha who is the beauty in Hmong legend as the symbol of the Sun, the Moon, the Celestial Phenomena, the nature, the animal which were created for the Hmong culture both in Hmong poetry and Hmong literature and passing on generation after generation. YangAsha is an image created from the Hmong myth whose plots started from the disputes between the God of Sun and the God of Moon to the image YangAsha and finally known for the Hmong regions in the southeastern Guizhou for thousands of years. According to the use of the occasions, there are three forms of literary for the myth of YangAsha, stories, poetry and rhetorical words which were about the plots to tell the birth of YangAsha and her marriages whom born in the well, married to the God of Sun for the first and then to the God of Moon later, in order to solve the disputes between the two Gods, she was accompanied by the God of Sun in the daytime and she stayed with the God of Moon in the nighttime after the mediation of the Hmong authoritative old man called Lilao.




  The registered trademark designed by Li Guozhang (copyright work)


  In Hmong language, “Yang” means a ship in a narrow sense and a year in a generalized sense, while “Asha” means the clean water, well water and the cold water which were stands for purity in Chinese. YangAsha means the pure girl in Hmong language. If you translate “Yang” into a ship or a year, it becomes a noun for the Phenological Calendar of the wellspring or the Single-page Calendar. If it is related to the sun and moon, it is the Solar Calendar, the Lunar Calendar or the Yin-yang Calendar. Therefore, the myth, YangAsha, is the phenology and the images appeared with not a real man both in lead and supporting roles except for the images like master of Yin-yang, authoritative old man in Hmong and the shepherd boy, the unreal men were the sun and moon, the nature and astronomy, the plantings and animals. We can infer that it states the principles of nature and emphasis on the doctrine of a man. It is a popular myth with the family relationship by the Hmong ancestors to illustrate the development of the Hmong calendars, from Phenological Calendar, Solar Calendar, Lunar Calendar, Jupiter Calendar to the development of E-jin and the 84 cycling years of E-jin with Uranus. The astronomical calendar stated by the myth YangAsha has the same theme with rice cultivation, Hmong festivals and the physiological cycle of a female, which were naturally existed in the world. The Lunar Calendar is the Synodic Yin-yang calendar, its predecessor was the Taichu Calendar in the year of Shangyuan, which was 4721BC and it is the year when the Central Plains people began to use the calendar. As the ethnic minority for the rice cultivating, the Hmong ancestors should be earlier to use the Synodic Yin-yang calendar. The mythology of YangAsha is known as the most beautiful mythical poetry widespread and well-known for most people due to its vivid storyline, sensible plots. Famous Hmong singers sing for the poetry and famed old Hmong men recite the literal words, they regard it as the natural regulations for harmony the relationship of marriages.


  This is Li Guozhangs understanding of the true meaning of the Yang Asha myth, which is also his decoding of the Yang Asha myth. According to the cultural atmosphere in this place and his hometown, In May 2018, Li Guozhang planned the name card of The Hometown of YangAsha Culture for his hometown Bixun Hmong village, and built it into an ancient tourist resort.


  Ⅴ. Development of Hmong Astronomical Crafts





  The picture Dou for the Emperor Vehicle restored by Li Guozhang

  The unity of man and nature is an important philosophical thought in ancient China. Li Guozhang believes that "the unity of man and nature" can be further expressed as "the unity of man and calendar ".People should keep up with the times as they lived in a specific time and they are striving for surviving, progressing and then achieving. Therefore, Li Guozhang realized that the rich myths, philosophy and the specific calendars can be spread by the carrier of handicrafts. Thus, he set up the platform for Hmong crafts and registered the Cultural Research and Creative Center of the Three Emperors and Five Sovereigns for the purpose of loading ethnic cultural symbols such as creation myth and calendar into the design and production of Hmong handicrafts, so as to achieve "industrial upgrading" and better carry forward the excellent traditional culture of Hmong nationality.


  It can be shown by a model no matter the universe how large is, while the space-time can be shown by a picture no matter how complicated is. Hmong arts and crafts often use concrete patterns and things to express the abstract concept of space and time. Li Guozhang believes that this cultural connotation is a major advantage and characteristic of Hmong arts and crafts design.


  Li Guozhang indicates that the ancient Ten Months Solar Calendar in Hmong is similar to the Han. The Ten Months Solar Calendar is counting the month with five birds called Fengniao Bird, Xuanyan Bird, Bozhao Bird, Qingniao Bird, Danniao Bird and five cooers which called Zhujiu Cooer, Qiaojiu Cooer, Shijiu Cooer, Shuangjiu Cooer, Gujiu Cooer. Taking the famous portrait brick of the Han Dynasty, Dou for the Emperor Vehicle, for example, it is a picture using the Yunniao Bird as the wheel , directing the way by the Fengniao Bird and the flying Xunyan Bird. If we use the Ten Months Solar Calendar for the thinking way to interpreter the activities of the emperor in ancient time, we can infer that the month for the parade in the picture is the month of Fengniao Bird which is January according to the Ten Months Solar Calendar and corresponding to the Gregorian Calendar of December 22th to January 27th. If someone wants to embroidery for colors, the early autumn color should be based on. The picture also illustrates that the emperor in the central is a bird man who is a wiser and follows the regulation of the harmony among the humans, nature and timing.





  The Hmong Crafts Platform logo on Mobile Phone Terminal (APP) which designed by Li Guozhang


  From this point of view, Li Guozhang is a conscious explorer for the Chinese Genesis Calendar and an interpreter for the genesis mythology. Thus, he is a folk literature artist.


  The author believes that the Hmong crafts, Hmong crafts website, the biggest publishing platform of the Hmong crafts with bilingual information will be better and more unique on the condition of the guarantee of the background networks, the supporting of the teamwork of the Three Emperors and Five Sovereigns, the one who is self-taught and can read the book of heaven in Uranus.

  ( 插图:展 理 )

  (Illustration by Zhanli)

  (英文:胡玉芳 审定:杨正文)